Saturday, July 21, 2012

The calculation of cooling time in injection moulding

Various way available to calculate cooling time in injection mould, the easiest way of course using numerical method, software package like mold flow, C - mold or your own compile numerical method language also available in the market, for detail and specific calculation, i suggest to write your own equation base on the problem, after that write in the programming language and understanding the result for the next optimization.

Why Cooling?

 Plastic industry is one of the world’s fastest growing industries, ranked as one of the few billion-dollar industries. Almost every product that is used in daily life involves the usage of plastic and most of these products can be produced by plastic injection molding method. Injection molding represents the most important process for manufacturing plastic parts. It is suitable for mass-producing products, since raw material can be converted into  a molding by single procedure The plastic injection molding process is a cyclic process.[1]
The cooling phase of the injection moulding process accounts for up to 75% of the overall cycle time. It therefore follows that a reduction in cooling time will in turn reduce the overall cycle time and hence, increase the throughput rate
Experimentally, cooling times are defined as the time taken for the pressure at the primary sensor to return to atmospheric, after the injection of a consecutive shot. The molten polymer cools and solidifies in the mould [2]
The cooling system design was primarily based on the experience of the designer but the development of new
rapid prototyping process makes possible to manufacture very complex channel shapes what makes this empirical
former method inadequate. So the design of the cooling system must be formulated as an optimization problem
The heat-transfer processes which occur in the plastic part and in the mould during the injection moulding of
thermoplastics are rather complex. The situation is one of three-dimensional unsteady-state heat-transfer with a
phase change.

Determining Cooling Time Formula

Ballman and Shusman method, 

they proposed this formula to calculate cooling time for injection mould process
where t is the cooling time in seconds: S is the maximum cavity thickness, mm; alfa is the diffusivity, 0i is the melt temperature at injection, °C; 0w is the mould temperature, °C; and 0e is the ejection temperature, °C, the latter being taken to be the heat deflect temperature (HDT) of the thermoplastic. However, it is recognized that the HDT is not a material constant but is dependent strongly on the processing pressure and sample thickness as well as on the type of material.[3]

Busch, Field and Rosato Method,

they proposed a combination of theoretical and statistical methods to derive the following equation for estimating the cooling time
Wp is part weight and Ncav is the number of cavities of the mould.

Kirch and Menges Method

commonly use in semi crystalline material [5]

J.Z. Liang and J.N. Ness Method

they use new formula base on analytical method,by judicious selection of the representative ejection temperature, the following equation for determining the cooling time of a polymer part in injection moulding can be derived
another formula also variable in many article and journal of material processing, because limited literature that i have, some month a go i also read calculation cooling time method from Professor in Japan and Korea, but, i forget to save those journal.

Which one the best?

i think to find with one the best, we must compare various formula with same temperature of ejection and other parameter we set same, than we compare the result with recommended or actual setting in injection process, of course with same material type.

Reference

[1]. S.H. Tang, Y.M. Kong, S.M. Sapuan, R. Samin, S. Sulaiman, Design and thermal analysis of plastic injection mold, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 171 (2006) 259–267
[2]  A.G. Smith et al,  A computational model for the cooling phase of injection moulding.
[3] C.J. Yu, J.E. Sunderland, Polym. Engng Sci., 32 (1992) 191.
[4] J. Busch, F. Field, Ill, and D. Rosato, Proc. SPE RETEC, Boston, Vol. 1, 1988
[5] G. Wubken and 1. Catic, Kunst~'-Berater



50 comments:

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Hii dear,

Really its a very intresting news for all about injection molding. Injection Moulding, along with extrusion ranks as one of the prime processes for producing plastics articles. It is a fast process and is used to produce large numbers of identical items from high precision engineering components to disposable consumer goods.

Thanks,
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I find this fascinating and your tutorial is very helpful. I have been having a hard time with tonnage and calculating the tonnage required on a cincinnati milacron injection molding machine in our plant.

I read your post and I really appreciate your experience. I will get good knowledge from there as well. Keep posting…
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Wow, what a challenging math formula, anyway such injection moulding helped produce plastic shapes such as the pallets in canada

Really its a very interesting thing I came to know about the calculation of cooling time in injection moulding. Nice Math formula will help to all mould industries.

We are a Plastic injection mold supplier in China. We are a factory which integrates design, drawings, prototype samples, mold and production one-stop service.

Nice tutorial and great source of information. I will get good knowledge from there as well.

Mould China

PlasticInjection molding is used in many industrial applications, from toys and model parts to furniture and building materials.

i reads your post it's very informative for pet preform manufacturers and mould company and peoples.

It's amazing how much work goes into these moldings. I'm always just so impressed with how far engineering and technology has come. I'm excited to see where it goes 10 years from now! www.spectroindustries.com.au

yes we agree cooling is important and also pressure during cooling as it will freeze the thermoplastics molecules in the mould, will the cooling be too fast/wrong added there can occur many problems in the plastic. Visit plasticmoldinchina.com

I didn't know the cooling process was so important. I learned a lot from this article. It was great learning more about something new.

Alena | http://www.spectroindustries.com.au

One of my friends is getting his own plastic moulder. The injector is going to be an interesting new toy. I'm glad there are guides like this, too. I wouldn't knwo how to help him with the cooling process. Thiago | http://www.spectroindustries.com.au/services

The different formulas that are used for determining the cooling time in metal injection mold are explained clearly. Thanks for the good post!


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Cooling time calculation is not an easy task, seen your post its very nice and full of knowledge, specially in the plastic injection mould manufacturing companies. We are very Thankful to you for this extra ordinary post. keep posting.

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